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Mid-Tudor crisis

 

 

“A sick and rapidly ageing bully, a boy too young to rule and a woman of limited political ability”- Paul Thomas

 

  • 1540-1563 England faced a series of disastrous foreign wars, Coups d’etats (attempts to overthrow government), 3 serious rebellions, attempts to subvert the succession and 6 dramatic changes to the official state religion an epidemic that wiped out 1/5 of the population and an economic depression.

 

Last years of Henry VIII

  • 1540-47- no main minister. Fall of Cromwell introduced a period of increased political instability. Seen in the growth of rival factions in this period.
  • Two leading rival parties were those supporting reform in politics and religion such as archbishop Cranmer, Edward Seymour and later the duke of Somerset. The other party were the conservatives, wishing to see less reform. These were Thomas Howard duke of Norfolk and Stephen Gardiner bishop of Winchester.
  • Success of conservatives was disgrace of Cromwell and Henry’s marriage to Catherine Howard,
  • Success of reform was catherines trial and execution for adultery in 1542. oth strove for supremacy at court for next 5 years
  • Reformers gained advantage with marriage of Catherine Parr(protestant) and imprisonment of Duke of Norfolk and Gardiner dismissed from privy council.
  • Some historians see these disputes between factions were a normal part of Tudor politics and it was necessary for a healthy government ut others see these disputes as a sign of increasing dynastic weakness.
  • Edward Seymour= Earl of Heartford (1537)=Duke of somerset (feb 1547)
  • John Dudley= Earl or Warwick (1547)=Duke of Northumberland (oct 1551)

 

Was the reign of a minor necessarily a negative experience for the country?

        Previous monarch’s such as Henry III and Richard II ruled successfully and they were the same age as Edward. Edward V was only 12 but his reign was cut short as he was murdered. Henry VI was only 9 months old when he came to the throne. By comparing their earlier reign to their latter we can see a change in adulthood to receiving opposition, being weak and Richard was murdered compared to their earlier years.

        But child monarch doesn’t give stability

        Child monarch always problem as leading potential powers would step forwards, choosing personal interest over national interest

         Or some refused to make changes, fear of being answerable to monarch when he comes of age.

 

 

 

Edward

1= irrelevant, 6= he was most important power

Time

Power rating

 Example

On his accession

1

Henry VIII will ignored, Edward controlled by somerset. He reduced his servants and somerset ruled by using the dry stamp and proclamations

Somersets fall

3

Edward time taken in education not politics yet influence considerable. When forced to go to Windsor castle he complained and became ‘ill’. He condemned his uncle by saying he had threatened to create riots in the street.

Early Northumberland (1550-51)

3

Attended privy council meetings, regularly and setting some agendas. He was quickly developing political skills

Later Northumberland (1552-53)

4

Drawing up agendas, leading and contributing to discussions. Already cultivating links with foreign ambassadors and making independent use oif his sectaries. Northumberland let Edward be involved in government but he was still in overall control and placed limits of Edward eg) foreign policy

Edward change succession in favour of lady Jane grey.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Somerset as Lord Protector

 

How he rose to power?

  •  Brother of jane Seymour, political rise from 1536
  • March 1537 became member of privy council and earl of hertford after birth of Edward
  • During 1540’s gained experience of diplomacy and the battlefield
  • 31 january 1547, after Henry’s death, privy council elected somerset as protector and he ruled with virtual royal authority.
  • 4 feb 1547- Edward and 13 executors signed a document giving someset sovereign authority until he was 18.
  • 16 feb 1547- became duke of somerset
  • Henry VIII intended to create a balance the privy council in his will but with Gardiners explusion and norfolks arrest= unbalances
  • Somerset was dominant figure and became lord protector as he was King’s uncle, had strong military reputation and been in favour of Henry VIII
  • Somerset kept Kings Death secret until he had possession of Edward and also had custody of the will and dry stamp. Somerset made leader of the council
  • By end of feb. Seymour had secured firm support of majority of councillors and made lord protector with right to appoint and dismiss members of privy council.
  • Given confiscated monastic property to support his new titles
  • Bought off his opposition with titles and land.

 

How he governed country

  • Somerset granted Quasi-royal power by letters patent in march 1547
  • Somerset used proclaimations more than any other tudor ruler (over 70 in less than 3 years. Henry used then 6 times, huge increase) he was creating laws without parl.  but he did call parliament to ratify them.
  • Obtained sole custody of the dry stamp and insisted kings signature not valid without his to accompany it.
  • Household servants used as government officials.
  • He by-passed the privy council. Nicknamed Household servants the ‘new council’
  • Country run from soemrsets home, not the court. Had own council and controlled the king

 

Why did he fall?

  • Poor leadership- somerset alienated many people, reluctant to delegate and by passed council and ruled from ‘the protectors palace’.
  • Mishandling of foreign policy- failed campaign in scotland and declaration of war on france disappointed council.
  • Favouritism- controlled king by giving his men key positions
  • Money making+ extravagance- built lavishly
  • Social policy- his views on social justice alienated the aristocracy. 

-western and Kett rebellions 1549

  • Religious policy: many catholics opposed religious reforms.
  • Country drifting into major crisis by 1549. somerset seemed unable to take decisive actions to suppress uprisings. His colleagues abandoned him due to his failure to prevent anarchy. Even lost favour of king.
  • Northumberland engineered somersets arrest in oct 1549 and there was no opposition
  • He was released early next year but then after joining privy council, was accused of plotting against government and executed in jan 1552

 

Northumberland

 

How he rose to power

        March 1542 became viscount Lisle on death of his stepfather

        1540’s earned his military reputation in land and sea battles against scots and French

        fev 1547 on henrys death, he became earl of warwicj and lord great chamberlain

        aug 1549- crushed kett’s rebellion, restored law and order

        oct 1549- planned somersets removal

        jan 1550- became lord president of the council

        oct 1551- became duke of Northumberland

        june 1553- attempted to change succession to his own advantage

        Northumberland placed friends and relations around king

        Pretended to be catholic sympathiser and conspired with conservatives. They planned to seize power and get him arrested along with somerset, but Northumberland plotted with reform party. with Archbishop Cranmers help he gained control over administration of royal household, won confidence of king and by feb 1550 he expelled the conservatives from council, bringing in protestant groups.

How he governed

        Style of government geared to his personal political objectives

        His role in the downfall of somerset and his elevation to power seems to have been motivated by his interest for survival

        He staffed household with his men who could control Edward

        He extended use of importance of privy council. He made himself lord president of the council so had power to fix agendas and meetings to bar councillors.

        He also assumed kings power to create new councillors

        Supporters of somerset who’d been arrested were released and returned to their posts

        He enlarged membership of the council to 33 to increase his authority and chose men who had military experience so incase of armed rebellions he’d have immediate support

        He made less use of proclamations preferring to use parliament to confirm legislation.

 

Why did he fall from power?

        His power depended on support of Edward VI. As kings health deteriorated the problem of sucession became an issue. Mar was to succeed but her catholic sympathies were unpopular. To prevent return to Catholicism, Northumberland and king changed succession to lady jane grey,

        Northumberland married his son to jane in may 1553

        Edward died before plans for power were complete. Jane grey was proclaimed queen but Northumberland underestimated the amount of support mary had.

        He marched into Suffolk with an army of 2,000 men but they deserted him. The privy council changed sides and proclaimed mary as queen.

        Northumberland was executed on 22 august in spite of his renunciation of Protestantism

 

Edwards religious beliefs

  • 5% of Edwards chronicle is devoted to subject of religion. Main concernw as not doctrine but control and structure of the episcopacy (bishops, hierarchy of church)
  • Edward liked long, complicated sermons and scribbled greek notes while he listened (highly educated)
  • Out of 22 royal preachers, 20 were reforming bishops or evangelical preachers
  • April 1550, Spanish ambassador reported that all those around the king were advanced protestants and that the king was delighted in supporting his beliefs.
  • Many of people close to the king were protestant, his tutor Richard Coxe, archbishop crammer, Catherine Parr and 2 advisers cecil and Hales.
  • He was held in very high esteem by leading reformers. Could speak on same level as leading adults.

 

Was he a reformer? Did he have a keen interest in religion?

        Always attended privy council when it was about religion

        Not happy with the moderate first book of common prayer

        Aware of details surrounding the writing of the second book of prayer

        Involved in parliamentary legislation behind the second act of uniformity

        Determined to make everyone attend protestant services

        Driving force behind persecution of his sister mary and attempted to prevent her succession.

        Attended privy council meetings and discussed religious changes

        Favoured and encouraged radical reformers

        Northumberland pursued  a radical religious policy for the king liking

        Edward promoted preaching as “the true preacher with doctrine and example print and engrave in the people mind the word of God”

 

Changes in religion 1547-53

 

In the last few years of Henry’s reign, Henry had been under pressure from the reform paty led by the archbishop Cranmer who wanted to introduce moderate Lutheran ideas. The opposition group led by Bishop Gardiner wanted minimum change to Catholicism. By 1547 the church in England had many inconsistencies hwich were unacceptable to both reformer and conservatives.

 

 

1529 (before reformation. R.C)

1547(end henry’s reign)

1550

1553

Eucharist

(transubstantiation/consubstantiation

(became blood and body or symbolised it)

Mass unchallenged. Transubstantiation not questioned

Act of 6 articles (1539) re-established

Transubstantiation

Consubstantiation no longer accepted 

transubstantiation

consubstantiation

Communion

(one or both)

Clergy took both bread and wine. Ordinary people took just bread

Up until 1539 everyone could take both but in 1547 ordinary people banned from taking both, just bread

Both bread and wine

Both bread and wine

Sacraments

(which ones)

7 sacraments 1529 (baptism, eucharist, confirmation, penance, marriage, ordination, last rites)

`1536- act of 10 articles got rid of 4 sacraments leaving baptism, eucharist penance.

1537 other 4 are reintroduce

all re-established

4 sacraments, communion, baptism. Last rites and marriage

Same as 1550

Clerical celibacy

(don’t marry or have relationships)

Priests couldn’t marry

A lot of priests had married. 1539 prests were banned from marrying. If had they had to get rid of their family/wife so wouldn’t get fired

Clerg allowed to marry

Same as 1550

 

The bible

In latin, only clergy allowed to read

 New English bible

1530- meant to be able to read it at home

act of true religion restricted access to bible to upper class

men and women had to read it in private, not in groups

 

In English

Bibles expensive, those who could read were able to

Same as 1550

Worship of images and saints

Allowed in 1529

Pilgrimages banned

Images+statues stayed in church but banned from worshipping it

Discouraged but not banned, there were some images removed

No images remaining in any churches

monastries

Provided a lot of employment

Central to life of both rich and poor

Monks=biggest landowner

Gone, small ones closed first for money

NO

NO

Chantries (sing to help people speed up out of hell)

Little chaples on part of church where masses sung for the dead

Dissolved in some areas, survived in others

NO

NO

Services (in latin?)

Services in latin, most people wouldn’t understand

Responses were in English

Not enforced, priest spoke in  latin and they replied in english

ENGLISH

ENGLISH

Salvation (how it’s achieved)

Have to go through penance and purgatory and eventually become fit enough for heaven

Purgatory iplied but not stated

Things that weren’t important were left

No prayers for the dead

Purgatory=vague

Justification by faith alone

Priestly vestments

Very ornate

Still wore same robes

Tradition robes

Robes gone, plain black and white

Prayers for dead?

yes

In theory not meant to be any but allowed to continue

NO

NO

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Religious change under Edward

1547- removal of catholicism

        Royal visitation- commissioners were sent to all bishoprics to examine the state of the clergy, doctrine and practises of the church. Episcopal authority  was suspended

        July-Book of Homilies and Paraphrases- placed in every church. Homilies contained some protestant sermons written by crammer, included one Lutheran belief of justification of faith alone. Gardiner and Bonner were objected and imprisoned established in all churches by the end of 1549

        July-Royal Injunctions- all clergy to preach in English, have an English bible and protestant literature in every parish church. Superstitious images removed

        4nov-24 December 1547- chantries act- act of dissolution contains crucial new preamble condemning all prayers for the dead.  “in fact the chantries act was  more significant as a gesture of reform than an act of plunder”

        4 nov-dec 1547- act of 6 articles repealed- left church w/o official doctrine. Treason act repealed, removed old heresy, treason etc. laws.

        People could discuss religion freely w/o fear of arrest or imprisonment and to plot and publish freely. Radicals leapt on this opportunity to spread their views destroying catholic images and altars. Protestant pamphlets attacked the mass and Catholics and government stripped itself of the power it needed to curb these outbursts

        Privy council= majority were reformers

        9 bishops- definite reformers, 10 were conservatives and 8 were undecided.

        Somerset was moderate protestant and favoured cautious reform.

        Reforms would not satisfy the extreme protestant- slow approach

        It increased the anti-catholic protests

        Somerset government had to get itself established before radical change.

 

1548- unofficial Protestantism

  • Seen as period of indecision
  • Jan-march- series of proclamations issued to dampen protestant unrest- privy council felt need to assert that transubstantiation was still technically in force and catholics rites still needed to be adhered to. Government trying to achieve order and was playing for time while Cranmer produced new prayer book.
  • 11 feb- all images removed from churches
  • 24 april- proclamations stating only authorised clergy to preach
  • 23 sept- proclamations stating no preaching until new liturgy introduced. (liturgy= instructions stating out how church service must be performed)
  • Government felt situation was slipping out of control, couldn’t control protestant activity, people smashing windows, freedom to preach= different interprtations
  • Dec- first prayer book- written by Cranmer outlining liturgy

 

1548-52- ceremonial change

        Somerset and council now in stronger position by late 1548

        Jan – act of uniformity- common book of prayer= official liturgy- effectively enforced despite pockets of resistance (eg:western rebellion)

        Nov 1549- parliament removed all laws against clerical marriage, all ecclesiastical courts were in the kings name.

        25 dec 1549- proclamation issued which ordered destruction of remainder of images

        jan 1550- new reformed ordinal- ordinal detailed the ceremony to be followed when clergy were ordained- radical protestant Hooper was outraged b swearing of oath to saints and wearing white surplice. 

        Nov 1550- removal of stone altars and replacement by wooden ones

        Jan 1552- new treason act- made it an offence to question the royal supremacy or any articles of faith in the church

        Transubstantiation, robes and holy days remain to please catholics.

        Nothing happens from 1549 onwards due to rebellions and 1549-somerset fall

        Conservatives have upper hand for a time being a Northumberland worked with them to remove somerset

        Northumberland ditches conservatives and proceeds with radical reform

        Bishops die, conservatives replaced with radical reformers.

 

1552- 53:  full Protestantism

  • Jan 1552- second book of common prayer- protestant document removed all traces of Catholicism and established a eucharist ceremony liked with calvins belief of ‘spiritual presence’. Prayers for dead and vestments removed. Still opposed by some reformers who resented being expected to kneel during communion.
  • April 1552- second act of uniformity- enforced 2nd book of common prayer. Became offence for both clergy and laity not to attend church of England service
  • Nov 1552- ‘black rubic’ proclamation- kneeling to reciueve communion was for the sake of god order, not out of idolatry. Edward personally intervened in this debate
  • 24 nov 1552- 42 articles submitted- issued by government on 9 june 1553, but never became parliamentary law. Based on Cranmers ideas. Articles= strongly protestant, being based on doctrine of justification by faith alone and loosely on calvins belief in predestination. Became basis of 39 articles.
  • 1553- short catechism was produced (w.o parl approval)- manual for teaching the main belief of the church, written in a question and answer format. Luther and calvin had produced catechisms.

 

Rebellions 1549

1549= year of crisis

23 countries were affected by rebellions. This was biggest disorder since peasant revolt of 1381. 10,000 people died which in proportion to population equated to the death rate in WWI. None of the rebellions intended to threat the established order, nor intended to put an alternative on the throne. The reaction of government could do much to inflame or calm these protests.

Causes of the Kett’s rebellion

  1. enclosure: first article of their demands, opposed any future enclosure. Many farmers had built enclosed sheep runs and it was the attack on the flowerdew’s enclosure that triggered the whole rebellion. The list contained complaints on a whole range of local farming issued. From may 48 to summer 49, government took action= worse as sympathised with rebels and not landowners, set precedent for more to attack.
  2. Rents- increase in rents during period of rapid inflation= economic situation od ordinary people was worsened.
  3. somersets policies-sympathetic to poor, gave support to commonswealth men, attacked landlord’s greed, passed an act protecting rights of copyhold tenants etc. this made him fall from favour in the eyes of the landlords and encouraged more rebellions.
  4. protest against bad government in east anglia-appealing directly to king and government
  5. religion and the clergy- articles relating to religion are thoughtful calls for more competent and involved clergy. Concerned by poor quality of priests and failure to fulfil their duties. One article requests that they do more to educate the poor and another states that clergy shouldbe priests for the whole community. The rebels demanded for congregations to choose their clergy.
  6. personality clashes- john flamedew=first fence and hedges to be uprooted, who had outraged the village of wymondham with his rapacity. (bought local abbey and was pulling it down)

Government response to Kett’s rebellion

        1st response- 21 july the york Herald arrived to offer full pardon to those who dispersed. The tone of offer was conciliatory, promising to prohibit landlords from acting as farmers, reduce price of woll by a third and to appoint commissioners to reform abuses. Kett rejected this, they had committed no crime. As Herald ordered kett to be arrested, the mood grew ugly and Herald retreated

        blood shed- rebels fetched canon from coastal defence and attacked Norwich after Herald departure. By end of evening on 22 july, rebels had taken Norwich.

        Government 1st attempt at suppression: :sent small army of 1,8000 under command of william parr to Norwich with orders to negotiate and cut off rebels supply lines arrived on 30 july, offered full pardon to those who dispersed but little response. Kett left with no option but to attack and they succeeded in recapturing Norwich

        Full scale rebellion: William parr retreated in disgrace to London. He’d created a crisis for government and country. Commissioners issued for militias to be raised and mercenaries were employed. Northumberland with 12,000 men arrived on 23 august

        Government suppression: Northumberland’s army ground down the resistance of the rebels and on 26 august kett made fatal decision to abandon their fortified position on top of mousehold heath and take up hastily constructed defences. Northumberland army was bolstered by anotheer 1,000 foreign mercenaries.  

        27 august= carnage 3000 rebels slaughtered and kett arrested

        aftermath= kett tried and hanged for treason on 26 november. 49 executions.

 

Causes of the western rebellion

  • religious grievances: articles demanded reintroduction of Catholicism. This ws to be achieved by reinstatement of 6 articles, use of latin, communion, prayers for dead and mass.
  • Economic factors: early stages of rebellion, economic grievances figured more highly, complaints about taxes on sheep and cloth generated rumours about taxed on other animals
  • Personality clashes: William body (government agent) intensified the antagonism felt towards religious changed with his heavy handed investigation into church property (smashing windows)
  • Government response: 1st response: somerset acting on inadequate info and had limited resources. Used lord russelll to find a peaceful settlement & wrote a conciliatory response to the rebel demands. provided only a small; army.
  • Bloodshed: loyalty to crown led to citizens of Exeter to defend their city against the rebels for six weeks. 8 july Russell tried to reach a settlement with rebels. 12 july reinforcements under lord grey were delayed by another uprising. 28 july Russell began his advance against rebels and added by lord grey on 3 august.
  • Government suppression- confrontations took place at Fenny bridges, clyst st mary and clyst heath, pushing rebels further back. more reinforcements arrived under sir William Herbert. Somerset heaped more pressure onto rusell to finish the job as French declared war on 8 august. 16 august Russell advanced and defeated rebel forces at Samford Courtney
  • Aftermath 3,000 people been killed. Robert welsh, a vicar, leader of rebels as hanged on gallows on own church tower. Hostility towards government grew as they executed without trial and confiscated and redistributed property illegally.

 

Details

Western rebellion

Kett’s rebellion

country

cornwall

East anglia-Norwich

Date started

10 june 1549

6-8 july

Leader/s

Humphrey Arundell

Robert Welsh

Robert Kett

Trigger causes

Resentment of William body and new prayer book

In devon provoked into rebellion by priests use of new prayer book on whit sunday

Crowds broke down some enclosures fences and hedges including Flowerdew, he was unpopular due to dispute with locals over abbey

Articles produced

yes

Yes

Main base

Assembled in Bodmin

Mousehold heath

Local gentry reaction

Gentry lost their grip on counties. Hellier tried to calm down rebellion in devon and was hacked to pieces. Sir carew tried to interfere and aggravated the situation, having to flee.

2 gentlemen made father unsuccessful attempts to conciliate the rebels by agreeing that religion should remain unchanged from henry viii reign

Paralyzed authorities of country. Norwich trying to attempt peaceful relations with new neighbour camped on mousehold heath. Sheriff nearly arrested when tried to disperse rebels and gentry were powerless

Governments reaction

Someset has inadequate info and resources. Sent lord Russell to find peaceful settlement and wrote response to the demands

York herald arrives to offer full pardon to all those who disperse promising to appoint commissioners to reform abuses etc. ket rejects it and herald tries to attack but forced to retreat

negotiation

Yes

 

supression

Confrontations forced rebels back and reinforcements arrives and defeated rebel forces at sampford Courtenay

1st attempt- somerset sent army of 1,800 but kett attacked and succeeded in recapturing Norwich,. 2nd attempt= Northumberland army groud down resiustance and 3000 rebels slaughtered kett arrested

punishments

3000 people had been killed

Robert welsh hanged on gallows on his own church

Kett tried and hanged

49 executions

 

 

 Who wanted a restoration of catholicism?

    • very few people, even mary’s advisers. Gardiner, Mary’s most trusted adviser is unenthusiastic about return to papal supremacy. Renard worried about property concerns. Chales V & Pope Julius urged caution, take it slowly. Cardinal pole was briefed to restore papal supremacy, didn’;t arrive in England until a year after. Philip reconciliation with rome became his top priority as wanted judos for himself.

 

Catholicism under mary

    • gave up title of supreme head of church
    • restored church to what it had been 1547 under act of 6 articles
    • parl. Agreed to reintroduction of heresy laws when promised monastic lands wouldn’t be restored to church
    • parl, passed second act of repeal- undid all anti-papal legislation since 1529 and Henrician reformation
    • returned England to how it was except the monastic lands
    • jan 1555 pope returned as head of church

 

methods used to achieve this

  • archbishop Cranmer was arrested as well as latimer and ridley
  • removed married clergy
  • heresy suppressed
  • 1554 holy days and ceremonies reintroduced-popular
  • restores pope as head of church-january
  • feb- protestant burning
  • uses synod to address abuses that caused Protestantism

 

Obstacles that mary faced

  • land-monastic
  • still had to rely on parl. All parl legislation had to be undone by parl.
  • Cardinal pole- arrested for heresy
  • Parl refused to repeal act of supremacy-parl showing her she had to compromise
  • Made Cranmer recant- when burned at stake he became martyr instead as burnt hand first that had signed document

 

1553- Protestantism

1553- Removal of Edwards Protestantism

1552 restoration of catholic doctrine

1554 Catholicism enforced among clergy

1555 restoration of papal supremacy

1555-58 persecution of protestants

 

 

 

Factors hindering catholics restoration in mary’s reign

 

  • shortness of reign
  • pole didn’t give ecclesiastical policy his full attention owing to his responsibility for seeking peace between Hapsburgs and French
  • pole scheme to overhaul church finance required 2 huge surveys- one of pensions to former monks & members of clergy & other of poor benefices.Took 18 months
  • pole strategy relied on active involvement of bishops but 6 sees were left vacant for most of reign
  • Pope Julius III 1555 died. New pope anti Habsburg and in dispute with Philip
  • Marian government failed to realise potential of literacy and printing. Critical works outnumbered publications that supported mary
  • Propaganda opportunities not always seized
  • Catholic leaders and writers wanted to reform not persuade, thought heresy was problem burning would solve
  • Bishops should be driving force for reforming but still in sees until april 1554 and lengthy vacancies
  • Pope rejected help of Jesuits in 1555. howevere their presence may have caused more probles rather than solving any (no control over them)
  • Many bishops removed weren’t replaced
  • New bishops appointed but not confirmed as pope refused to confirm them- leaderless in areas

 

Persuasions and persecutions of protestants

 

Carrots (persuasion)

Sticks( persecution)

  • Felt they would persuade protestants of error of their ways to make them return to Catholicism
  • Catholic believed if they redressed the abuses within the catholic church which had been the focus of early protestant criticism then there’d be no need for a protestant church (too late)
  • Encouraged bishops to make regular checks on clergy, remove pluralism
  • Tried to improve educational level of clergy- do a better job, set up seminaries and catholic schools
  • Encouraged pro catholic writers to take on board and counter protestant propaganda
  • Government organised open air sermons in hope to win over protestants (mainly in London( given by best preachers
  • Burning of key protestants- leaders, bishops, archbishops
  • Strict censorship to silence protestant press, couldn’t print their views
  • Death penalty introduced for having treasonable books
  • Writers were imprisoned
  • If found guilty of slander against mary of Philip then it was treason= death penalty.

 

How effective was all this?

  • Didn’t work, protestant press went underground
  • Many protestants fled country to Netherlands
  • Burning proudced martyrs, reinforced many people’s determination to hand onto their faith
  • Ruined mary’s reputation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marriage and rebellion

  • Mary married Philip on 25 july 1554
  • Marriage treaty was result of spain and habsburgs desire to have England as an ally, rather than risk England joining france as a rival –FOREIGN POLICY
  • Sarked off wyatt rebellion as marriage was unpopular, felt England interest would suffer, queen marrying a foreigner, different perspective queen marrying a man- bow down to husband, foreign influence=greater. Once terms of marriage were said, the rebellions occurred
  • Rebels were all protestant and feared catholic reformation
  • Rebellions started in Kent, cloth trade still in decline and people suffering=less tolerant
  • Rebellion was gentry led, gentry feared career opportunities would diminish with Philips presence at court.

How serious was Wyatt’s rebellion

Rebellion dangerous

Rebellion not dangerous

  • Wyatt was able to raise a force of nearly 3,000 men while marys council could not agree what to do
  • The elderly duke of Norfolk failed to stop rebels en route to London from Rochester
  • Mary gave a rousing speech to Londoners at guildhall on 1 feb 1554, in which she professed ‘as a mother doth love a child’ to stand firm in her cause
  • Mary decided against help of imperial troops, which would have fuelled the rebels xenophobia (fear of foreigners)
  • Events moved too fast for the conspirators. Rising moved forwards 2 months
  • Opposition to marriage was strong but not as strong as the feeing had been to put mary on the throne
  • Mary decided to wait for the rebels in London rather than sending forces to meet them in Kent
  • Courtenay was weak and confessed his involvement early
  • Orthodox protestants leadership (loyal) did not want to get involved in revolt so much that some imprisoned ministers and refused to be liberated by rebels
  • The vigilance of Renard and Paget took the sting out of rebels plans, kept one step ahead of rebels
  • The French having been in touch with the conspirators thought Noailles, their ambassador, did not seize opportunity to invade FOREIGN POLICY- COULD HAVE BEEN DANGEROUS

 

 

 

 

 

Parliaments under Edward and Mary

 

1.how does pattern of parl meeting compared with earlier reigns?

  • gap between 1555-1558 in mary’s reign. In Edwards reign meets a lot more frequently
  • frequent in both
  • both working with parliament
  • parl can workwith mary-adult level
  • Edward reign frequent due to being child?
  • similar to 1530 parliament.

2.why was parl called during this period?

  • called to make change to religious settlement
  • Edward- reform church and mary-counter reformation
  • Social and economic issues

 

3. was this a significant period in parl history?

  • Significant? Yes
  • Period of problems, parl opposition, mp’s protecting business and industry, self interest
  • Furthering reformation and counter reformation- parl has role.
  • Given opportunity to debate religious changes
  • Seats in parl were sought after.

 

4. were parl a focal point of opposition to royal administrations ?

  • Edwards reign- little opposition “malleable house of commons” interested in own interest not church doctrines
  • Mary- many protestants left at start of her reign, parl=more catholic or moderate protestants. Monastic lands-opposition initially due to counter reform-material interests

 

5. what do parl tell us about quality of marys government?

  • See parl as important
  • Mp’s prepared to co-operate as mary was prepared to co-operate and compromise- meet them half way (monastic lands) and (Philip coronation)
  • Wanted to make sure Elizabeth was looked after.

 

 

 

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